HomeMutual FundMust you go for Upper Pension underneath EPS?

Must you go for Upper Pension underneath EPS?

The Govt (EPFO) has presented a call to choose eligible EPF/EPS subscribers to go for upper pension underneath EPS (Staff’ pension scheme).

An method to earn a better pension all over retirement.

Who would say “No” to such an be offering?

Smartly, there’s no unfastened lunch on this global. Whilst there’s an method to earn upper pension, it comes at a value.

The query: Must you go for upper pension underneath EPS?

On this put up, let’s take a look at the next facets intimately.

  1. How a lot pension do you get underneath EPS? When does the pension get started and the way lengthy do you get it?
  2. How do you give a contribution to EPF and EPS?
  3. What’s this whole factor about upper pension? And why does this get up?
  4. Who’s eligible?
  5. What do you get if you happen to go for upper pension? What do you lose?
  6. In case you go for upper pension, what portion of your EPF corpus will likely be moved to EPS?
  7. What are the issues/drawbacks of EPS? Those drawbacks may affect your determination.
  8. Must you go for upper pension underneath EPS? Or will have to you stick to the established order?

Mentioned this subject in a Twitter thread too.

How a lot pension do you get underneath EPS?

Per month Pension = (Pensionable wage X Pensionable carrier)/70

Pensionable wage = Reasonable of closing 60 months of base wage (previous it was once closing 365 days wage). The pensionable wage is now capped at Rs 15,000. Alternatively, there’s a means for previous workers (who joined body of workers earlier than September 1, 2014) to get round this cover and earn pension on precise base wage. And that is the supply of all the dispute that we can talk about on this put up.

Pensionable carrier = No. of years of contribution to EPS

I’ve learn in lots of puts that the pensionable carrier is capped at 35 years for the aim of pension calculation. Alternatively, I may now not in finding the supporting clause within the EPS Act. If any such cap is certainly there, it should drift from any other algorithm/rules.

The pension begins on the age of 58. In case you go out EPS on the age of 58 and feature rendered greater than two decades of pensionable carrier, 2 years will likely be added to the pensionable carrier for calculation of pension.

You’ve got an method to get started pension early (however now not earlier than the age of fifty). The pension will likely be decreased by way of 4% for annually of early go out. Too can defer however now not past the age of 60.

Let’s perceive this with the assistance of a demonstration.

Your closing 60 months’ moderate base wage is Rs 1 lac. And also you had been contributing as in keeping with precise wage (now not as in keeping with salary cap of Rs 15,000)

You’ve got rendered 33 years of pensionable carrier. Since you will have labored for over two decades and are exiting on the age of 58, your pensionable carrier will likely be 35 years.

Per month pension = Rs 1 lac X 35/70 = Rs 50,000

  1. You are going to earn this pension of Rs 50,000 monthly for lifestyles.
  2. Dying of pensioner with Surviving partner: After you, your partner will earn 25,000 (50%) till he/she is alive (or will get remarried). As well as, your youngsters gets 6,250 (12.5%) monthly till they flip 25. Max 2 youngsters. That makes it a most of 75% (50% to partner+ 12.5% every to two children) pension to the circle of relatives.
  3. Next death of partner (pensioner had kicked the bucket previous): If the partner passes away due to this fact, the pension to the youngsters (most 2) will build up to 37.5% every. Till the age of 25. That’s once more a most of 75%.
  4. Dying of pensioner with out surviving partner: If there’s no surviving partner, the youngsters (most 2) get orphan pension (37.5% every) till the age of 25. Most of 75% of member’s pension to the circle of relatives.
  5. There are a couple of different provisions taking good care of nook instances. You’ll have to test the EPS Act to peer how pension provisions will practice in such instances.

Notice: In case you had been contributing with a salary ceiling, you are going to get pension of best Rs 15,000 X 35/70 = Rs 7,500.

Whilst you see any such formulation for calculating pension in an outlined receive advantages scheme, you’ll be able to sense this can also be gamed. The sort of formulation could have had some relevance within the years long past by way of however now not now. Just right that the Govt has plugged the loophole, a minimum of for the brand new participants.

Via the best way, how is the pension from EPS funded? It really works thru your (your employer’s) contribution to EPS.

How does contribution to EPS and EPF paintings?

You give a contribution 12% of your base wage (Elementary + DA) to EPF each month.

Your employer makes an identical contribution of 12%. Alternatively, this 12% is invested in a unique way.

Of this 8.33% is going in opposition to EPS (Worker pension scheme). And the rest (3.67%) is going to EPF.

Alternatively, the wage on which EPS is calculated is capped at Rs 15,000 monthly.

Allow us to imagine an instance. Allow us to say your base wage is Rs 50,000.

Your contribution to EPF = 12% * 50000 = Rs 6,000.

You don’t give a contribution to EPS.

Your employer additionally contributes Rs 6,000 on your EPS+EPF.

What’s the breakup?

Employer contribution to EPS = 8.33% X Rs 15,000 = Rs 1,250 (for the reason that ceiling salary of Rs 15,000 will get caused).

Employer contribution to EPF = Rs 6,000 – Rs 1,250 = Rs 4,750

The Govt additionally contributes 1.16% of your base wage to EPS matter to a salary cap of Rs 15,000 monthly.

This sounds all proper. The place is the issue?

The place is the issue?

The salary ceiling has stored converting. Prior to the modification within the EPS scheme in 2014, the ceiling was once Rs 6,500.

Smartly, that’s additionally advantageous. I don’t see any drawback there.

Had the above salary ceilings concrete, the whole thing would had been advantageous.

Alternatively, the EPS laws allowed workers to give a contribution over and above the salary ceiling cap. (Btw, the modification in EPS scheme in 2014 plugged this loophole and the workers becoming a member of the body of workers after September 1, 2014 can’t give a contribution above the ceiling cap of Rs 15,000).

However this doesn’t save you workers who had been member of EPS scheme earlier than September 1, 2014 (and nonetheless are OR retired after September 1, 2014) from contributing above the salary ceiling (Rs 5,000/Rs 6,500/ Rs 15,000). And earn a HIGHER PENSION.

And this has resulted in the entire confusion.

Notice that EPS is an outlined receive advantages scheme (not like NPS which is an outlined contribution)

How does this result in confusion?

There are more than one pathways.

Case 1

In some instances, your employer caps contribution to EPF to salary ceiling of Rs 15,000 (salary ceiling has stored converting. It was once Rs 5,000 previous. Then to Rs 6,500 and now to Rs 15,000).

Therefore, even supposing your elementary wage is Rs 50,000, you are going to give a contribution best Rs 1,800 (12% of Rs 15,000). Your employer will give a contribution 1,250 (8.33% of Rs 15,000) to EPS. And Rs 550 to EPF.

In case you belong right here, you don’t seem to be eligible for HIGHER PENSION. Why? As a result of you will have been contributing best as in keeping with the salary cap.

Case 2

Your employer does now not cap contribution. You give a contribution on precise wage (and now not in keeping with wage cap). Exact base wage of Rs 50,000.

Your contribution to EPF = 12% X Rs 50,000 = Rs 6,000.

Your contribution to EPS is NIL.

Employer contribution to EPS = 8.33% X 50,000 = Rs 4,165

Employer contribution to EPF = 3.67% X 50,000 = Rs 1,835

You might be eligible for upper pension.

Alternatively, there was once a technical rule right here the place the worker and employer needed to put across this determination to EPFO inside of positive timelines. Provision to Para 11(3) of the scheme earlier than modification in 2014.  I reproduce the supply underneath.

higher pension under EPS

Therefore, there have been circumstances the place other folks had contributed extra to EPS with out explicitly mentioning this selection.

Once they reached out to EPFO for upper pension, EPFO rejected their declare for upper pension (and gave pension as in keeping with the ceiling cap) since the ones workers didn’t specify this feature explicitly with said timelines. And refunded extra contribution within the EPS to the EPF accounts of the workers with hobby.

Such workers challenged EPFO within the courts and received. The Perfect Courtroom discovered the ones timelines arbitrary and dominated in favour of such workers. Eligible for upper pension. You’ll examine this example about Mr. Praveen Kohli right here.

Case 3

Your employer does now not cap contribution. You give a contribution on precise wage (and now not in keeping with wage cap). Exact base wage of Rs 50,000.

Your contribution to EPF = 12% X Rs 50,000 = Rs 6,000.

Your contribution to EPS is NIL.

Employer contribution to EPS = 8.33% X 15,000 = Rs 1,250 (whilst the employer does now not cap contribution to EPF, it caps the EPS contribution)

Employer contribution to EPF = 6,000 – Rs 1,250 = Rs 4,750

Because the EPS contribution has been made as in keeping with the salary cap of Rs 15,000, you could get pension best as in keeping with the salary cap. No longer upper pension.

In case you belong right here, this contemporary EPFO round dated Feb 20, 2023 will hobby you.


As a result of you will have an method to replenish a sort and ensure that you need a better pension now. Since there’s unfastened lunch, EPFO will switch a portion of cash (deficit contribution to EPS in conjunction with hobby from EPF to EPS). In your long term contributions additionally, you (your employer) should give a contribution extra to EPS.

So, upper pension however a decrease EPF corpus. Within the latter a part of the put up, we can see find out how to assessment those alternatives.

Who’s eligible for upper pension underneath EPS?

I reproduce an extract from EPFO round dated February 20, 2023.

higher pension under EPS

The round refers to eligibility for exercising this new choice for upper pension by way of filling up a sort.

  1. You should had been a member of EPS as on September 1, 2014.  Due to this fact, if you happen to set to work after September 1, 2014, you’re NOT eligible. OR if you happen to retired earlier than September 1, 2014, you’re NOT eligible for upper pension.
  2. Your (and your employer’s) contribution to EPF (as on September 1, 2014) was once at the wage that exceeded the salary ceiling cap of Rs 5,000 or Rs 6,500. Let’s say your base wage was once 25,000 and also you had been contributing on the real wage of Rs 25,000 (and now not as in keeping with salary cap of Rs 15,000). You might be ELIGIBLE even supposing your EPS contribution was once capped however your EPF contribution was once on precise wage.

Learn how to practice for Upper Pension underneath EPS?

The EPFO round lays down the process.

You should make a joint utility in conjunction with your employer to EPF. As issues stand lately, you should practice earlier than March 3, 2023 (4 months from the Perfect court docket judgement).

Given the confusion surrounding this subject, I am hoping the time limit is prolonged.

Recommend you succeed in out to the accounts crew of your employer for the operational main points.

Must you go for Upper pension underneath EPS?

In case you go for Upper pension, you are going to get upper pension. Possibility-free. Assured for lifestyles. And that’s the largest merit.

How top a pension will you get?

Smartly, that is dependent upon your moderate base wage within the ultimate 5 years of your paintings lifestyles (and years of pensionable carrier).

Now, you can’t resolution this query appropriately, particularly in case you are within the non-public sector the place salaries can vary vastly. If you’re operating with a PSU and are nearer to retirement, you might have a more impregnable grip at the resolution.

Nonetheless, take trained guesses. How a lot increment you will have been receiving the previous couple of years? And with the ones assumptions, you’ll be able to arrive on the ultimate pension quantity.

And also you examine that towards the choices? Don’t you?

At the start, the upper pension comes at a value. Your EPF corpus will pass down as a good portion of your EPF corpus will likely be shifted to EPS scheme. Your long term contribution to EPF will even fall since you are going to now give a contribution extra to EPF.

After retirement, you could get this corpus and you’ll be able to make investments this cash in financial institution mounted deposits, Govt Bonds, SCSS, PMVVY and even annuity plans to generate common retirement source of revenue.

So, you should see, how a lot EPF corpus are you foregoing? And the way simple or tricky it’s so that you can generate a an identical stage of source of revenue the use of this corpus? If you’ll be able to do this simply, then take care of the established order. If you can’t (the velocity of go back will likely be somewhat top), then go for a better pension.

In case you go for Upper pension, what portion of EPF will likely be shifted to EPS?

Within the aforementioned EPFO round dated Feb 20, 2023, EPFO has discussed, “The process of deposit and that of computation of pension will practice thru next round”.

Deposit way deposit from EPF to EPS. To be fair, it’s unfair to be expecting workers to choose till EPF comes out with those calculations. Have in mind, the Perfect court docket handed its judgement on November 3, 2022, and gave 4 months (till March 3, 2023) to participants (workers) to make their selection. And EPFO says on Feb 20, 2023, that they are going to factor a next round for calculations.

EPFO, in its round dated Might 11, 2023, got here out with the calculation method for a way a lot quantity can be shifted from EPF to EPS If you select to use for upper pension.

For this, you will have calculate 2 quantities.

A = Quantity that are supposed to have long past to EPS (if you happen to had exercised upper pension choice on the very starting)

B = Exact Quantity that has long past to EPS

To calculate A

  1. We will have to first calculate the EPS contribution for every month on precise wage (and now not capped wage)
  2. As much as August 31, 2014: On the fee of 8.33% out of 12% employer contribution on upper pay (from November 16, 1995 or from the date the pay exceeds the salary ceiling, whichever is later).
  3. From September 1, 2014: 8.33% of the 12% employer contribution as much as elementary pay of Rs 15,000. 9.49% of the 12% employer contribution exceeding Rs 15,000
  4. For every month, deduct the quantity that was once at the beginning transferred to the EPS in that month. That is the deficit quantity that must be transferred to EPS.
  5. No longer simply the deficit quantity, the hobby earned on such deficit quantities should even be transferred to EPS.

If you’ll be able to figure out this math, you will have the solution.

Let’s perform a little crude calculations and notice how a lot will likely be moved from your EPS corpus.

Let’s say you set to work within the 12 months 2001.

Your base wage in the beginning was once Rs 20,000 and grew at 5% in keeping with annum. I’ve assumed that EPF returned 8.5% p.a. right through the tenure.

The salary cap was once Rs 6,500 till September 2014 and Rs 15,000 thereafter.

Whilst you had been contributing to EPF on precise wage, the contribution to EPS was once best as in keeping with cap.

Within the first 12 months, Base wage =20,000

Worker EPF contribution = 20,000 * 12% = Rs 2,400

Employer EPS contribution = 8.33% * 6,500 = Rs 542 (if this had been on precise wage, employer would have invested Rs 1,667)

Employer EPF contribution = Rs 2,400 – Rs 542 = Rs 1,858 (if EPS contribution had been on precise wage, this may had been Rs 2,400 – Rs 1,667 = Rs 733)

The deficit contribution to EPS = Rs 1,667 – Rs 542 = Rs 1,125

Now, this deficit contribution to EPS (that went to EPF) should be shifted again to the EPS scheme. And the hobby in this deficit contribution too. And this should be carried out for all your previous carrier.       

How a lot will this quantity be?

This is dependent upon the trajectory of your wage enlargement. The upper your wage, the upper the deficit contribution. And the extra (in share phrases) you’ll have to switch from EPF to EPS.

Proportion of switch= General deficit contribution to EPS/General Contribution to EPF

On this instance, general contribution to EPF (comprises each employer and worker) = Rs 21.63 lacs

General deficit contribution to EPS = Rs 6.06 lacs

Proportion of EPF to be transferred to EPS = Rs 6.06/21.63 lacs = 28%

You’ll additionally examine the EPF corpus. Present vs the EPF corpus you could have with out EPS contribution being capped. You could get the similar resolution.

I did very crude EPF calculations (now not actual). Present corpus = ~51.66 lacs

EPF corpus after disposing of EPS cap = Rs 37.14 lacs. A distinction of 28%.

Notice this distinction can be upper for a better base wage.

On this instance, if we modify the beginning base wage from Rs 20,000 to Rs 50,000, the switch share rises to 32%.

If beginning base wage drops to Rs 10,000, the switch share falls to 19.8%.

What is that this 8.33% and 9.49%?

We learn about employer contribution of 8.33% of your elementary pay to EPS account. Smartly, that’s now not sufficient to fund your EPS pension. The Govt contributes an extra 1.16% on your EPS account to fund the pension.

The Govt is okay with contributing 1.16% as much as the salary ceiling prohibit of Rs 15,000. Past that, now not such a lot. That’s why within the EPS pension laws in 2014, EPFO has obviously discussed that if you happen to go for upper pension, this 1.16% has to come back from the subscriber (you).

The Honorable Perfect Courtroom had put this on dangle. For extra in this, seek advice from web page 7 of this file. Alternatively, the Govt of India clarified this thru a Gazette notification dated Might 3, 2023.

Going ahead, you (your employer for your behalf) will give a contribution 8.33% on elementary wage as much as 15,000 and 9.49% at the portion exceeding Rs. 15,000.

Your long term EPF contributions will fall

In case you go for upper pension, your employer’s long term contribution to EPS will upward thrust and to EPF will fall. That will even decelerate the expansion of EPF corpus.

As discussed within the earlier segment, your employer will now give a contribution 8.33% of your elementary wage on your EPS account. And for the portion of elementary wage exceeding Rs 15,000, the employer contribution will likely be even upper at 9.49%. As extra money is going to EPS, much less cash is going to EPF.

Extending the instance to pending 10 years of carrier, if you happen to go for upper pension, you could finish with Rs 1.04 crores of EPF corpus after 10 years.

Had you caught with decrease pension, you could have Rs 1.46 crores.

What is going to be the pension?

Reasonable base wage within the closing 5 years = Rs 86,645

Per month pension = 86,645 X 35/70 = Rs 45,798

Despite the fact that you caught with decrease pension choice (establishment), you could get pension of Rs 7,500 (Rs 15,000 X 35/70).

Distinction of Rs 41.68 lacs in EPF corpus.

Distinction in EPS pension = Rs 45,798 – Rs 7,500 = Rs 38,298

Now, for this Rs 41.68 lacs to generate source of revenue of Rs 38,298 monthly, it must generate a go back of eleven% p.a. That’s now not simple.

Taking a look at such an research, choosing upper pension looks as if a better option.

However EPS has its personal set of issues.

What are the issues with pension underneath EPS?

At the start, you get the entire pension till you’re alive. After you (the main pensioner passes away) your partner will get the pension however best 50% of the unique quantity. And after the partner passes away, a most of two children will get 25% every till they’re 25.

I’m imagining a morbid state of affairs, however the circle of relatives does now not get as a lot if you happen to (the main pensioner) move away too quickly after retirement.

Had you caught with a decrease pension, you could have got a far larger EPF corpus at retirement. Now, this EPF corpus belongs to you. And after you, it belongs on your circle of relatives. So, this extra EPF corpus won’t be capable to generate as top source of revenue as EPS however this EPF corpus belongs to you and your circle of relatives.

Secondly, the pension is dependent upon the closing 5 years (60 months) of base wage. So, if making a decision to take a step off the accelerator if you move 50 and select up a role that can pay much less, your moderate source of revenue all over the overall 5 years of your operating lifestyles would possibly fall. And therefore the pension will likely be decrease.

For example, allow us to think your moderate base wage between the age of 48 and 53 was once Rs 2 lacs. And the typical base wage between 53 and 58 years was once 1 lac. The pension can be calculated  for the typical wage within the closing 5 years i.e. Rs 1 lac. That you’re incomes extra earlier than that doesn’t subject.

Thirdly, if you wish to retire early, then your pensionable years of carrier will likely be much less, and the pension will accordingly be decrease. Plus, the pension quantity does now not get started earlier than the age of fifty. Allow us to imagine an instance. You set to work on the age of 25 and labored till the age of 45. two decades of carrier. Let’s additional think that your moderate wage within the closing 5 years was once Rs 1 lac. Therefore, your per thirty days pension can be Rs 1 lac X 20/ 35 = Rs 57,142.

Alternatively, if you need this complete pension, you’ll have to wait till the age of 58. However you retired on the age of 45. There’s an method to get started drawing previous however now not earlier than you flip 50. The early withdrawal comes at a value. You get 4% much less for every 12 months of early withdrawal. So, if you happen to get started at 50, you are going to get 8 X 4% = 32% much less. Rs 38,857 as an alternative of Rs 57,142.

Finally (and I’m really not certain about this), the choice for a better pension is a joint choice exercised by way of you and your employer. You might be in a non-public process and feature opted for a better pension (and your present employer is pleased with this). You turn your process after a couple of years and the brand new employer has a unique coverage about contributions. Caps the contribution as in keeping with salary ceiling. You’ll ask them to make an exception for you, however this can be a headache. This chance would make me extraordinarily uncomfortable.

What’s the ultimate verdict?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer.

Going by way of numbers (and as we’ve observed above), choosing the upper pension will certainly come up with an excessively top pension. It could be tricky to duplicate the similar stage of risk-free source of revenue out of your EPF corpus.

Alternatively, the upper pension comes with many ifs and buts. Many caveats. You lose flexibility.

You should weigh the upper pension towards those issues in EPS.

I am getting extraordinarily uncomfortable if you are taking away flexibility from my investments. Therefore, please admire my biases in my ultimate feedback.

If you’re nearer to retirement and are pleased with the entire caveats (as discussed within the earlier segment), you are going to most probably be by way of signing up for Upper pension. However test the calculations earlier than taking a last name.

If you’re more youthful (35-40), connect larger weight to issues/caveats/loss of flexibility in EPS.

Disclaimer: Whilst I’ve attempted my best possible to grasp and give an explanation for the subject intimately, there is also shortcomings in my research or my working out of the EPS scheme and the EPFO round.

Supply/Further Hyperlinks

Newest Staff’ Pension Scheme (EPS), 1995

EPFO round dated February 20, 2023



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